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 ÔN THI TN PHẦN 1

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Bài gửiTiêu đề: ÔN THI TN PHẦN 1   Fri Nov 18, 2011 1:56 pm

REVISION FOR THE FINAL EXAMINATION

Grammar I:
TENSES

TENSES FORMS MARKERS USES
1. Present
Simple
S(plural) (I / We / You / They) + V0

S(singular) (He / She / It) + V s/es

- always, usually, often
- sometimes, now and then
- seldom, rarely,
- every (day/ week / month…)
- once (a week / month…)
- twice (a week / month….) -1 thoùi quen, 1 söï vieäc laëp ñi laëp laïi ôû hieän taïi.
-1 chaân lyù, 1 söï thaät hieån nhieân.
- Caûm giaùc, traïng thaùi ôû hieän taïi.
2. Past
Simple S + V 2/ed
- yesterday, ago, this morning
- in + time in the past (in 2000)
- last (night/ week / month) -1 haønh ñoäng, söï vieäc xaûy ra vaø chaám döùt trong quaù khöù, bieát roõ thôøi gian.
- 1 loaït caùc haønh ñoäng xaûy ra lieân tieáp trong quaù khöù.
3. Future
Simple S + will + V0
- tomorrow, tonight, someday
- in + time in the future
(in 2050)
- next (week / month / year…) -1 haønh ñoäng, söï vieäc seõ xaûy ra trong töông lai.
4. Present Continuous S + am / is / are + V-ing
- now, right now
- at present, at the moment, at
this time
- Look ! , Listen ! -1 haønh ñoäng, söï vieäc ñang dieãn ra vaøo ñuùng thôøi ñieåm noùi.
-1 haønh ñoäng, söï vieäc xaûy ra trong töông lai ñaõ xeáp ñaët tröôùc.
5. Past
Continuous S + was / were + V-ing
- When / While / As
- At 10.20 yesterday -1 haønh ñoäng ñang xaûy ra ôû quaù khöù thì moät haønh ñoäng khaùc caét ngang. (when, as).
-2 haønh ñoäng xaûy ra song song cuøng moät luùc trong quaù khöù. (while)
-1 haønh ñoäng xaûy ra taïi moät thôøi ñieåm trong quaù khöù.
6. Future Continuous S + will + be + V-ing - at this time/ at 8 o’clock + time in the future (at 8 o’clock tomorrow)
- When / while / as + clause (time in the future) - dieãn ra taïi 1 thôøi ñieåm trong töông lai.
- ñang dieãn ra ôû töông lai luùc vieäc khaùc xaûy ra.
- dieãn ra suoát 1 quaõng thôøi gian daøi trong töông lai.
7. Present
Perfect S + have/has + V 3/ed
- just, recently, lately
- never, ever, yet, already
- since, for, so far
- up to now, up to the present
- for a long time, for ages
- many times, several times. -1 haønh ñoäng, söï vieäc vöøa môùi xaûy ra.
-1 haønh ñoäng ñaõ xaûy ra ôû quaù khöù vaø coøn tieáp tuïc ñeán hieän taïi.
-1 haønh ñoäng xaûy ra trong quaù khöù, khoâng bieát roõ thôøi gian.
8. Present
Perfect Continuous S + have/has + been + V-ing
- for, since, up to now...
(I’m tired because I’ve been working hard) -1 haønh ñoäng ñaõ xaûy ra ôû quaù khöù vaø coøn tieáp tuïc ñeán hieän taïi, nhaán maïnh söï lieân tuïc cuûa haønh ñoäng.
- haønh ñoäng ñaõ xaûy ra vaø keát quaû toàn taïi tôùi luùc ñang noùi.
9. Past
Perfect S + had + V 3/ed
- before, after, by the time
- when, as soon as -1 haønh ñoäng xaûy ra tröôùc 1 haønh ñoäng khaùc hoaëc tröôùc 1 thôøi ñieåm trong quaù khöù.
10. Future
Perfect S + will + have + V 3/ed - after, before, when
- by the time + time in the future - Hoaøn taát tröôùc thôøi ñieåm töông lai hoaëc tröôùc 1 haønh ñoäng khaùc ôû töông lai.
- Keùo daøi ñeán 1 thôøi ñieåm ôû töông lai.

Ex:
1. She goes to school every day.
2. She wrote the letter to her friend two days ago.
3. He will visit the most famous pagoda in this city next week.
4. John is reading an interesting book now.
5. When I was walking in the street, I met one of my friends.
6. What will they be doing at this time tomorrow morning?
7. They have lived in London since 2001.
8. He has been teaching English for ten years now.
9. George had waited for an hour before the bus came.
10. Next month, he will have been married for fifteen years.


@ NOTES:

PRESENT SIMPLE PRESENT CONTINUOUS PAST SIMPLE
1) ÔÛ ngoâi III, soá ít, ta theâm “s” vaøo haàu heát caùc ñoäng töø.

2) Nhöõng ñoäng töø taän cuøng laø o, ch, sh, s, x, z ta theâm “es”.

3) Nhöõng ñoäng töø taän cuøng laø “y”, tröôùc noù laø moät phuï aâm, y chuyeån thaønh -> i + es (study -> studies). Nhöng tröôùc “y” laø moät nguyeân aâm thì giöõ nguyeân: y + s (play -> plays).

4) Ñoái vôùi ñoäng töø ñaëc bieät (be, can, may . . .), theâm “not” vaøo chính caùc ñoäng töø ñaëc bieät neáu laø caâu phuû ñònh, vaø ñaûo chính caùc ñoäng töø ñaëc bieät ra tröôùc chuû töø neáu laø caâu hoûi. 1) Khoâng duøng thì naøy ñoái vôùi caùc ñoäng töø chæ söï nhaän thöùc, tri giaùc, sôû höõu nhö: BE, HAVE, SEE, KNOW, FEEL, LIKE, LOVE . . . Ñoái vôùi caùc ñoäng töø naøy, ta thay baèng thì hieän taïi ñôn.

2) Ñoäng töø taän cuøng baèng “e”, boû “e” theâm “ing” (come – coming).

3) Ñoäng töø (moät vaàn hoaëc hai vaàn coù daáu nhaán troïng aâm ôû vaàn thöù hai) taän cuøng laø moät phuï aâm, tröôùc ñoù chæ coù moät nguyeân aâm: gaáp ñoâi phuï aâm + “ing” (run - running, begin - beginning).

4) Ñoäng töø taän cuøng laø “ie”, ñoåi “ie” thaønh -> y + ing (lie – lying) 1) Ñoái vôùi ñoäng töø ñaëc bieät (was, were, could, . . ), theâm “not” vaøo chính caùc ñoäng töø ñaëc bieät neáu laø caâu phuû ñònh, vaø ñaûo chính caùc ñoäng töø ñaëc bieät ra tröôùc chuû töø neáu laø caâu hoûi.

2) Caùch theâm “ED” vaøo sau ñoäng töø hôïp qui taéc:
a. Ñoäng töø taän cuøng baèng “e”, chæ theâm “d”.
b. Nhöõng ñoäng töø taän cuøng laø “y”, tröôùc noù laø moät phuï aâm, y chuyeån thaønh -> i + ed (study -> studied). Nhöng tröôùc “y” laø moät nguyeân aâm thì giöõ nguyeân y + ed (play -> played).
c. Ñoäng töø (moät vaàn hoaëc hai vaàn coù daáu nhaán troïng aâm ôû vaàn thöù hai), taän cuøng laø 1 phuï aâm, tröôùc ñoù chæ coù 1 nguyeân aâm: gaáp ñoâi phuï aâm + ed (stopped, permitted).







Grammar II: SUBJECT & VERB AGREEMENT

I. Subject and Verb in a sentence must agree in Person and Number:
Ex: Her dress is beautiful.
Those cars are very modern.
II. Some other rules:
1.
S1 + and + S2 + V (plural)
Ex: He and his friends are good students.
John and I are going to play tennis.
2.
with / together with
S1 + along with / as well as + S2 + V (S1)
accompanied by
Ex: The actress, along with her manager and some friends, is going to a party tonight.
3.
Either or
Neither + S1 + nor + S2 + V (S2)
Not only but also
Ex: Either you or I am wrong
Neither Tom’s parents nor his teacher is satisfied with his progress.
4.
Every Noun (singular)
Each + + V (singular)
Either
Neither of + Noun (plural)
Ex: Every child has a toy.
Each job needs patience.
Each of the patients is examined every day.
5.
Every / some
Any / no + one / body / thing + V (singular)
Ex: Everyone is ready.
6.
A number of + Noun (plural) + V (plural)
The number of + Noun (plural) + V (singular)
Ex: A number of the applicants have already been interviewed.
The number of days in a week is seven.
7.
S (N + preposition phrase) + V(N)
Ex: The study of languages is very interesting.
8.
Gerund (as Subject) + V (singular)
Ex: Writing many letters makes her happy.
Grammar III: THE USES OF VERBS

I. INFINITIVE: Infinitive ñöùng sau caùc ñoäng töø sau ñaây:

Agree arrange attempt ask decide demand determine desire expect fail help hope intend learn manage mean need offer plan prepare pretend promise propose refuse seem tend want wish
Ex: He doesn’t want to know.
Advise allow ask enable encourage expect invite order permit request tell want warn wish
Ex: He advised me to leave here early.

II. GERUND: Gerund ñöùng sau caùc ñoäng töø sau ñaây:

Admit appreciate avoid can’t help consider delay deny enjoy finish keep imagine mind miss postpone practise prevent quit resent resist risk suggest understand
Ex: We enjoy playing football.
III. NOTES:
A. GERUND or INFINITIVE: (the meaning changes)
VERBS MEANINGS EXAMPLES
1 Remember
Forget
Regret + to V (hành động chưa xảy ra)
Please remember to return the book tomorrow.
+ V-ing (hành động đã xảy ra)
I’ll never forget seeing her at the first time.
2 Stop + to V (dừng lại để làm việc khác) He stopped to eat. (dừng công việc để ăn)
+ V-ing (từ bỏ, dừng việc đang làm) My father stopped smoking two months ago. (bỏ hút thuốc)
3 Try + to V (cố gắng làm việc gì) I will try to study hard so that my parents stop worrying about me.
+ V-ing (thử làm việc gì) He tried making a cake but he didn’t succeed.

B. VERBS OF PERCEPTION:
hear
see Vo (söï hoaøn taát cuûa haønh ñoäng)
smell + O +
feel V-ing (söï tieáp dieãn cuûa haønh ñoäng)
notice
watch...
Ex: We saw him leave the house.
She smelt something burning and saw smoke rising.

C.
Make / let + O + Vo

Ex: He made me move my car.

D.
Modal Verbs (will, can, may, must, should, had better, have to ...) + Vo

Ex: The children had better go to bed early.





















Grammar IV: INVERSION OF THE VERB

The verb is used in the inverted form after certain adverbs and adverb phrases if they are placed first in a sentence or clause.

Never : khoâng bao giôø, chöa bao giôø
Seldom : ít khi
Only by : chæ baèng caùch
Only then / when : chæ luùc ñoù, chæ khi
Not only (… but also) : khoâng nhöõng … maø coøn
Not until : maõi cho ñeán khi
Hardly ever : ít khi
Hardly … when = Scarcely … when : vöøa môùi … thì
No sooner … than … : vöøa môùi … thì
So … that … : ñeán noãi maø
Neither / Nor : cuõng khoâng
So : cuõng vaäy
Nowhere : khoâng nôi naøo
In no circumstances : khoâng ôû tröôøng hôïp naøo
On no account : khoâng vì lí do gì

Ex: 1. He had hardly had time to settle down when he sold the house.
Hardly had he had time to settle down when he sold the house.
Scarcely had he had time to settle down when he sold the house.
No sooner had he had time to settle down than he sold the house.
2. He didn’t return to his native village until the war ended.
(It was not until the war ended that he returned to his native village)
Not until the war ended did he return to his native village
3. The question is so difficult that nobody can answer it.
So difficult is the question that nobody can answer it.
@ NOTES:
1. Bill would enjoy a game and Tom would too.
= Bill would enjoy a game and so would Tom.
2. He didn’t like the book, I didn’t either.
= He didn’t like the book, neither / nor did I.
Grammar V: REPORTED SPEECH
A. STATEMENTS: How to change direct speech into reported speech:
Form:
S + said (that) + S + V
S + told + O (that) + S + V
• Đổi động từ ở mệnh đề chính thành: said, told …
• Đổi Pronouns, possessive adjectives
• Đổi Verb tense.
• Đổi Adverbs (time, place)
1. Pronouns, possessive adjectives:
Subject Object Possessive Adjective Possessive Pronoun
I me my mine
You you your yours
He him his his
She her her hers
It it its its
We us our ours
You you your yours
They them their theirs
2. Verb tense:
Direct speech Reported speech
1. Present simple
Ex: go
2. Present progressive
Ex: is going
3. Present perfect / Past simple
Ex: have done
swam
4. Past progressive
Ex: was / were going
5. Future simple
Ex: will 1. Past simple
Ex: went
2. Past progressive
Ex: was / were going
3. Past perfect
Ex: had done
had swum
4. Past perfect progressive
Ex: had been going
5. Future in the past
Ex: would

3. Adverbs of time & place:
Direct speech Reported speech
This
These
Here
Now
Today
Yesterday
Tomorrow
Ago
This week
Last week
Next week That
Those
There
Then
That day
The day before / the previous day
The day after / the following day / the next day
Before
That week
The week before / the previous week
The week after / the following week / the next week
@ Notes:
• Neáu ñoäng töø ôû meänh ñeà chính ôû thì hieän taïi ñôn, ta chæ ñoåi ñaïi töø trong lôøi trích daãn.
Ex: The farmer says, “I hope it will rain tomorrow.”
The farmer says that he hopes it will rain tomorrow.
She says, “I’m tired now.”
She says that she is tired now.
• Neáu ñoäng töø ôû meänh ñeà chính ôû thì quaù khöù ñôn, ta phaûi ñoåi thì, ñaïi töø, töø vaø cuïm töø chæ thôøi gian, nôi choán trong lôøi trích daãn.
Ex: Judy said, “I will phone you tomorrow.”
Judy told me (that) she would phone me the day after.

B. COMMANDS:
Form:
S + told / asked + O + (not) to V

Ex: “Hurry up, Lan”
He told Lan to hurry up.
“Don’t make noise in class, please!”
The teacher asked them not to make noise in class.

C. QUESTIONS:
Form:
wh- + S + V
S + asked + O
if / whether + S + V

1. Wh-Questions:
Ex: “What time does the film begin?”
He asked me what time the film began.
2. Yes-No Questions:
Ex: “Have you seen that film?”
He asked me if I had seen that film.

@ NOTES:
A. REPORTED SPEECH with INFINITIVE:
Form
V + to inf V + O + to inf
promise : hứa
agree : đồng ý
hope : hy vọng
offer : đề nghị
want : muốn tell : bảo
ask : yêu cầu
want : muốn
advise : khuyên
remind : nhắc nhở warn : cảnh báo
encourage : khuyến khích
order : ra lệnh
invite : mời

Ex: “I will help you, Mary” said Peter
Peter promised to help Mary.
Ex: “Look at the board, please!”, said the teacher.
The teacher asked the students to look at the board.
B. REPORTED SPEECH with GERUND:
Form:
S + V + (O) (prep) + V-ing
S + V + V-ing S + V + prep + V-ing S + V + O + prep + V-ing
suggest
admit
deny insist on
dream of
think of
look forward to
apologize (to sb) for accuse sb of
thank sb for
congratulate sb on
prevent sb from
warn sb against
Ex: “Let’s go out for a drink,” Susan said.
Susan suggested going out for a drink.
“I’ll help you with your physics exercise,” Peter said to Susan.
Peter insisted on helping Susan with her physics exercise.
Tom said to me, “It was nice of you to help me. Thank you very much.”
Tom thanked me for helping him.

C. CONDITIONAL IN REPORTED SPEECH:

TYPE DIRECT SPEECH REPORTED SPEECH
1 “If it rains, I will stay at home to read books,” said the boy. - The boy said that if it rained, he would stay at home to read books.
2 “If I were a millionaire, I could help poor children,” said the man. - The man told me if he were a millionaire,
he could help poor children.
3 “If you had had breakfast, you wouldn’t have been hungry,” said the man. - The man told me if I had had breakfast,
I wouldn’t have been hungry.

How to change direct speech into reported speech:
• Đổi động từ ở mệnh đề chính thành: said, told …
• Verb tense:
- Type 1: luøi laïi 1 thì khi ñoäng töø töôøng thuaät ñöôïc duøng ôû thì quaù khöù.
- Type 2, 3: giöõ nguyeân thì ñoäng töø
• Pronouns, possessive adjectives
• Adverbs (time, place)

Grammar VI: THE ACTIVE & PASSIVE VOICE
A. Form:
S + be + V3, ed (place + by O + time)

Ex: The book was written by Mark Twain

B. How to change into the passive voice:
Active: S V O

Passive: S BE + V3, ed by + O

TENSES ACTIVE PASSIVE
1. Simple present S + Vo/ s/ es S + am/ is/ are + V3/ ed
2. Simple past S + V2/ ed S + was/ were + V3/ ed
3. Simple future S + will/ can + Vo S + will/ can + be + V3/ ed
4. Present continuous S + am/ is/ are + V-ing S + am/ is/ are + being + V3/ ed
5. Past continuous S + was/ were + V-ing S + was/ were + being + V3/ ed
6. Present perfect S + has/ have + V3/ ed S + has/ have + been + V3/ ed
7. Past perfect S + had + V3/ ed S + had + been + V3/ ed
Ex:
1. John delivers the newspapers every morning.
The newspapers are delivered by John every morning.
2. My mother wrote that letter.
That letter was written by my mother.
3. They will build a new school here next month.
A new school will be built here next month.
4. He is asking me a lot of questions.
I am being asked a lot of questions.
5. She was doing her homework at that time.
Her homework was being done at that time.
6. My mother has made that cake.
That cake has been made by my mother.
7. They had prepared a party before we came.
A party had been prepared before we came.


@ Notes:
A. Causative forms: have, get

VERBS KINDS FORMS
Have Active S + have + O (person) + Vo
Passive S + have + O (thing) + V3/ed
Get Active S + get + O (person) + to V
Passive S + get + O (thing) + V3/ed
Ex:
1. I had him repair my bicycle yesterday.
I had my bicycle repaired yesterday.
2. I get her to make some coffee.
I get some coffee made.

B. Verbs of opinion: say, think, believe, know, report …

KINDS FORMS
Active S1 + VS1 + that + S2 + VS2


Passive
It + be V3/ ed + that + S2 + VS2


S2 + be V3/ ed + to V(S2)

to have V3/ ed

Ex: People say that he is a famous doctor.
It is said that he is a famous doctor.
He is said to be a famous doctor.
People believe that he drove through the town at 90 km an hour.
It is believed that he drove through the town at 90 km an hour.
He is believed to have driven through the town at 90 km an hour.






Grammar VII: CONDITIONAL SENTENCES

TYPES IF CLAUSE MAIN CLAUSE
1. Real in the Present
or Future Possible
(coù thaät ôû hieän taïi hoaëc coù theå xaûy ra ôû töông lai) S + V1 S + will / can + Vo
S + V (o / s / es)
Vo
2. Unreal in the Present (khoâng coù thaät ôû hieän taïi) S + V2/ ed
(past subjunctive) S + would / could + Vo
3. Unreal in the Past
(khoâng coù thaät ôû quaù khöù) S + had + V3/ ed
(past perfect subjunctive) S + would / could + have + V3/ ed

Ex: 1. If I have time, I will help you.
Please call me if you hear from Jane.
2. If I were you, I would come there.
3. If he had studied hard, he would have passed his exam.

@ NOTES:

1. If you should see Tom this evening, tell him to phone me.
= Should you see Tom this evening, tell him to phone me.
2. If they were stronger, they could lift the table.
= Were they stronger, they could lift the table.
3. If he had studied hard, he would have passed his exam.
= Had he studied hard, he would have passed his exam.
4. If you had had breakfast, you wouldn’t be hungry now.

@ SOME OTHER CASES:

CONJUNCTIONS MEANINGS EXAMPLES
If … not = unless nếu … không - If you do not study harder, you will get low grade.
= Unless you study harder, you will get low grade.
- If he is not here, you can leave.
= Unless he is here, you can leave.
or, or else, otherwise nếu không thì - Go out now or I will call the police
= Go out now, otherwise I will call the police
in case trong trường hợp, phòng khi - You should bring the umbrella in case it rains.

provided / providing (that) / as long as miễn là - You can camp here provided you leave no mess.

@ AS IF / AS THOUGH: Y nhö theå

TYPES FORMS
1. Unreal in the Present
(khoâng coù thaät ôû hieän taïi) S + V (present) + as if + S + V2/ ed
(past subjunctive)
2. Unreal in the Past
(khoâng coù thaät ôû quaù khöù) S + V (past) + as if + S + had V3/ ed
(past perfect subjunctive)

Ex: 1. He acts as though he were rich. (He is not rich)
2. Betty talked about the contest as if she had won the grand prize.
(She didn’t win the grand prize)

@ WISH / IF ONLY

TYPES FORMS
1. Future wish S + WISH + S would / could + Vo
2. Present Wish S + WISH + S + V2/ed (past subjunctive)
3. Past wish S + WISH + S + had V3/ed (could have V3/ed )

Ex: 1. I wish I could be an astronaut in the future.
2. I wish I were rich. (I am poor now)
3. She wishes she hadn’t failed her exam last year. (She failed her exam last year.)
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